The term “Anatomy” derives from the ancient Greek, meaning “to dissect”. Human Anatomy is subdivided into macroscopic (or Gross) and microscopic Anatomy. Macroscopic Anatomy describes structures, organs, muscles and bones, which are visible to the naked eye. In order to establish a certain order, they are divided topographically and systematically. Microscopic Human Anatomy is the study of tissues that is Histology, an optical magnification in order to evaluate cellular structures. Embryology needs to be considered a part of Human Anatomy. It is the study of development of human body beginning from fertilization of the ovum until birth. At the end of Anatomy teaching program, the medical students should develop observational and organizational skills to identify exposed anatomical structures and regions, surface marking on normal living bodies and anatomical structures involved in movements, actions and reflexes.
Physiology deals with the study of nature & with human body functions at cellular and sub- cellular level including homeostasis, metabolism , genetics, organ system and body functions; more over it is vast study of functons of cardiovascular system, respiratory system , nervous system , genito urinary system, digestive system, Endocrines & musculoskeletal system , also deep sea & aviation physiology, along with geriatic physiology.
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids & other biomolecules. The studies relevant to the field encompasses areas of biochemistry that are important for the understanding of nutritional, metabolic and generic disorders, relevant to common disturbance of body functions, gene structure and its function. Experimental work in Biochemistry will highlight important chemical tests. Methods of biochemical analysis by various techniques are used for separation, identification, and measurement of biomolecules relevant to clinical sciences.
Pharmacology is concerned with the study of drugs (Chemicals) that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. Two main branches of Pharmacology
1.Pharmacokinetics :(Moving or putting in motion) Attempts to discover the fate of drug from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body. How a healthy or un healthy body deals with the drugs.
2.Pharmacodynamics It is the study of biochemical and Physiological effects of drugs on the body or microorganisms and mechanisms of drug action (Relationship between drug concentration & effect).
Definition of Drug
According to WHO, Drug is a chemical substance which is used or intended to be used to modify or explore the Physiological systems or Pathological states for the benefit of recipient. A drug improves the Quality of life, it improves the mobility, relieves pain, allows individual to take selfcare and lead a normal life.
Traditionally this subject includes General and Special Pathology, clinical and chemical pathology, microbiology and Hematology. The General Pathology provides knowledge of basic reactions of the cells and tissues to abnormal stimuli induced in general, by all diseases such as effects of injurious agents on cell, vascular response of tissues to injurious agents (inflammation), as genetic basis of certain diseases, development of new growth (neoplasia) and the principles of homeostasis. While the Special Pathology gives knowledge of the specific responses of specialized organs and tissues and progress of specific diseases process in the individual organs of all systems of human body hence also called Systemic Pathology which also includes the knowledge of clinical pathology, chemical pathology and hematology. The Course of microbiology consists of general bacteriology, special bacteriology, virology, mycology immunology and parasitology. Microbiology leads us towards knowledge of various infections in humans and the application of this knowledge helps in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. The experimental performance compliments instruction given in lectures and tutorials of the various disciplines of this subject.
It is a science which deals with the application of Medical knowledge to the Purpose of Law, for furthering of justice. The main objectives are to understand Legal position of Medical profession and to handle biological specimens in MedicoLegal Cases, to Law informing agencies to help The Public in getting justice. The teaching includes the legal aspects of medical practice and the legal implications of medical disorders, in collaboration with the disciplines of pathology, pharmacology, hospital casualty and different clinical sciences. The emphasis includes of all the legal aspects of medicine that a medical graduate may be expected to experience in his/her professional life.
ISLAMIC AND PAKISTAN STUDIES
The knowledge of Islamic and Pakistan studies is however important for a medicial student in Pakistan. The culture and its moral values are mainly derived from its religion, Islam. The discipline consists of the overview of Islam as a religion, its contribution to human civilization, its concepts about moral values and the essential characteristic of an Islamic society.
Clinical subjects are important for the development of basic clinical skills which leads to accurate diagnosis and management.Students deal with common health problems of society. Most of the time is spent in clinics, hospitals and the community heath facilities. Day to day management of patients in wards, community health facilities, out-patient clinics, operation theaters etc. They perform their duties under supervision of clinical teachers.
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of surgical problems, injuries, deformity, and disease through Surgical techniques. It includes subjects of General surgery and allied specialties consisting of Anesthesiology, Orthopedics, Radiotherapy and Radiology. The teachings include Clinical details of common surgical problems, Indications and Contraindication of common surgical procedures. Aseptic techniques, dressing and mastering of minor surgical procedures are emphasized for developing skills. The opportunity is provided to the students to observe the live operations of patients. Furthermore, students are given opportunity to develop their skills for giving local anesthesia, in tubation and resuscitation during their clinical hours along with knowledge of basic principles and recent advances in techniques of surgery.
Community medicine is the specialty that deals with the health and disease of a population or of a specified community. The goal is to identify health issues and their solutions. It covers the fields of bio statistics, epidemiology, primary healthcare and community related medicine. The subject is taught by way of lectures and tutorials, which also includes field visit to various rural communities, and Public sector Hospital and knowledge about Primary Health Care Projects.
Internal Medicine or General Medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. This study teaches the students the art of history taking, allow them to learn the physical examination of the patient, prescribe appropriate investigation and interpret the results rationally. Internal medicine includes, among others, disciplines like Cardiology, Dermatology, Psychiatry and Radiology.
OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
Obstetrics and gynecology are the two surgical medical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs in their pregnant and non-pregnant state, respectively, and as such often combined to form a single medical specialty and postgraduate training program.
The field of medicine that is concerned with the health of infants, children, and adolescents; their growth and development; and their opportunity to achieve full potential as adults. This course includes understanding of normal child growth and development, theoretical as well as clinical aspects of diseases specific to children.
The branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of disorders and diseases of the eye. Students are taught and trained to diagnose and manage minor common eye problems.
Although a highly specialized field on its own, the students are exposed to common Ear, Nose and Throat problems and learn the basic skills of the examination of the speciality of ENT, also have knowledge of treating common ENT ailments.